Kingdom of Cambodia

Nation - Religion - King


Royal Government of Cambodia











Prepared by

Cambodian Rehabilitation and Development Board

Council for the Development of Cambodia




The sources of information used in preparing this Mutual Accountability and Partnerships for Results are the reports on TWG strengthening exercise and JMI progress report prepared by all Technical Working Groups (TWGs). The great efforts of all TWG Chairs, focal points and lead development partner facilitators is therefore acknowledged on the record with gratitude and it is hoped that the Report will be used in their future work.

In all cases CRDB has attempted to validate the data and evidence to confirm the factual basis for the analysis that has been presented.





1. Introduction.......................................................................................................................................... 1

2. Technical Working Group Performance............................................................................................. 1

   TWG Performance Review Study............................................................................................. 1

   TWG Strengthening Exercise .................................................................................................. 2

   Common actions/general recommendations............................................................................ 2

   Specific actions........................................................................................................................ 3

3. Progress on Implementation of the JMIs........................................................................................... 7

    Core of the RS - Phase III: Good governance......................................................................... 7

    Side 1 of the RS: Promotion of the Agriculture Sector............................................................. 9

     Side 2 of the RS: Development of Physical Infrastructure...................................................... 10

     Side 3 of the RS: Private Sector Development and Employment........................................... 10

     Side 4 of the RS: Capacity Building and Human Resource Development.............................. 10

 4. Conclusion.............................................................................................................................................. 16


             LIST OF TABLES


1.    Summary of TWG Strengthening Exercise Reports............................................................... 5

 2.    Summary of JMI Implementation Status................................................................................. 13

 3.    TWG Performance Review: Survey Scoring Summary......................................................... 14

 4.    2014 Funding and Development Partner Activity in TWGs.................................................... 15



                                  CDC                Council for the Development of Cambodia

                                  CRDB             Cambodian Rehabilitation and Development Board

                                  DCPS              Development Cooperation and Partnerships Strategy (2014 - 2018)

                                  DPs                 Development Partners

                                  GDP                Gross Domestic Product

                                  JMIs                Joint Monitoring Indicators

                                  LDC                 Least Developed Country

                                  LMIC               Lower-Middle Income Country

                                  MDG               Millennium Development Goal

                                  MoWA             Ministry of Women Affairs

                                  NSDP              National Strategic Development Plan

                                  NGOs              Non-Governmental Organizations

                                  ODA                Official Development Assistance

                                  PBA                 Program-Based Approach

                                  PFM                Public Financial Management

                                  RGC                Royal Government of Cambodia

                                  RS                   Rectangular Strategy

                                  SDGs              Sustainable Development Goals

                                  TWGs              Technical Working Groups

                                  UN                   United Nations

                                  UNFCCC        United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

1. Introduction


Efforts to promote results-based partnerships in 2014-2015 focused on strengthening the Technical Working Groups (TWGs), serving as the principal mechanisms for coordination and partnership dialogue. The Joint Monitoring Indicators (JMIs) for 2014-2018 were prepared to address both the 'managing for development results' and the 'mutual accountability' principles of effective development cooperation and set up medium-term goals based on development outcomes articulating in the NSDP.


The TWG Performance Review Study, finalized during the first Quarter of 2015, addressed that the TWG architecture is generally sound but performance is mixed and there are several areas in which improvements should be made in line with joint partnerships including shared learning and commitment that promote individual TWG performance. To follow-up on these findings, the strengthening of TWG performance has been exercised where all TWGs were requested to consider measures that can be taken according to promote their performance and results. From a partnership perspective, the JMIs are one of the principal tools employed to support the implementation of the Development Cooperation and Partnerships Strategy 2014-2018. To secure improved performance through a continuous and consistent focus on priority objectives, a new set of sectoral JMIs was selected for the full 5-year 2014-2018 NSDP implementation period prior to ratification by the Prime Minister. They are, however, subject to an annual progress review and reporting to CDC so that annual activities may be agreed to ensure that targets remain on-track.



2. TWG Performance


TWG Performance Review Study


In August 2014, the Technical Working Group Performance Review Study by an independent consultant was conducted to help strengthen TWG performance in support of the Royal Government of Cambodia's Rectangular Strategy III and the National Strategic Development Plan 2014-2018 (NSDP). The TWG architecture is an important cornerstone of the RGC's Development Cooperation and Partnership Strategy (DCPS) 2014-2018 that aims to promote and strengthen aid and development effectiveness. The results of the study were then discussed and verified at the Partnerships & Harmonization (P&H) Meeting on 27 January 2015 at the Council for the Development of Cambodia (CDC). This represents the first step in implementing the DCPS by providing clear direction for the TWGs to reflect on their own work as well as to present an opportunity to produce a general overview and a set of recommendations that can help them with their shared learning that promotes individual TWG performance.


The TWG Performance Review Study's main findings include:


  • The TWG architecture is generally sound but performance (i.e., implementation) is mixed. As a result TWG contributions to achieving sector objectives and national development goals, including aid effectiveness and public sector reforms, is uneven. RGC Chairs and Secretariats tend to view the overall performance of TWGs higher than do the DP Lead Facilitators (Table 3).
  • TWGs that perform well over time tend to exhibit a mix of common factors. These factors include: strong government ownership; committed leadership by the Chair; active commitment and support from DP Lead Facilitators; sound managerial capacity; high levels of trust and good communication; strong secretariats; clear Terms of Reference, sector development plans and strategies; annual TWG work plans; regularly scheduled and well managed plenary meetings; active sub-groups; self-initiated TWG retreats and reviews; and considerable time and effort on the part of all stakeholders.
          TWGs also face a number of challenges and constraints that can impede good performance. First, there is lack of
          an over-arching accountability framework to monitor and evaluate
  • performance. Second, in some TWGs certain development issues have become increasingly contentious, while in other TWGs shifting circumstances are changing stakeholder perceptions of development priorities. Third, aid and investment modalities are changing and new development actors are emerging. Fourth, the quality of participation by TWG members, both RGC and DPs, is inconsistent. Fifth, plenary meetings often have agendas that are so crowded they preclude dialogue concerning both technical and policy issues.


The TWG Performance Review Study made six recommendations for strengthening TWG performance in the short and medium term:


  • Full implementation of the Development Cooperation and Partnership Strategy, 2014-2018.
  • Second, the TWG P&H, along with the CDC as Chair, should play a more active role in providing leadership for the overall TWG infrastructure.
  • The CDC should play a more active role in ensuring that TWGs are accountable to a higher authority for performance and progress toward JMIs.
  • The TWG landscape in terms of the number and sector coverage should be rationalized.
  • The CDC along with the TWG P&H should encourage TWGs to assess how well they perform each function and identify areas and plans to strengthen core functions.
  • The Guideline on the Role and Functioning of the Technical Working Groups (October 2010) should be reviewed in light of the new development context and aid modalities.


TWG Strengthening Exercise


Sixteen of the 19 TWGs completed the Strengthening Exercise that have been consolidated and assessed by CDC for use by all development actors (a summary is provided in Table 1). All the TWGs that reported have prepared and discussed the reports through consultative processes either at the TWG meetings or retreats before endorsing by both Chairs and DP Lead Facilitators. By identifying recommendations for both common and specific actions as well as highlighting good practices, it is intended that this learning and sharing will inform dialogue and decisions that will promote effective development and partnership actions.


The findings of the Strengthening Exercise conducted by the 16 TWGs have shown similar recommendations. There are many recommendations that apply generally for all TWGs as well as some unique actions to be taken by individual TWGs (a summary is provided in Table 1).


Common actions/general recommendations


Overall, based on the reports submitted, general recommendations have been proposed to improve the TWG performance. These have been incorporated into the revised TWG Guideline and include the followings:


  • Conducting regular meetings, based on an agreed schedule, that are facilitated by an effective Chair with ownership respected by all members, with well-thought-through agenda and concrete action points for implementation and follow-up;
  • Clear Terms of Reference is needed for each TWG. Thus, all TWGs reported mentioned a need to draft, revise or update the TWG ToR (to include the role of the Secretariat) for better functioning of the TWG and Secretariat in response to the changing Cambodia's development context and the TWGs' roles and functions;
  • Effective communication mechanisms are needed for regular and timely information-collecting and -sharing between members;
  • Intensify policy dialogue at the TWG level to discuss key policy items and challenges so that key policy decisions are made to ease the implementation on the ground;
  • To revise the ToR and membership of sub-groups and delegate topics to these technical sub-groups that can meet informally and report to the main TWG;
  • Continued capacity building and strengthening of the secretariat and TWG in coordination, conduct of meetings, dialogues and negotiations, Monitoring and Evaluation, and sub-national supports has been generally raised by most TWGs;
  • Review and update JMIs, as needed, and provide a follow-up mechanism to ensure progress is made based on a clear set of goals linked to RGC policy;
  • The roles of CDC proposed by other TWGs are consistent with the DCPS and include the followings:
    • To provide extra leadership on clustering/rationalizing existing TWGs around thematic frameworks for institutional reforms and capacity development;
    • The P&H TWG to join TWG working relationships through organizing ''policy seminars'' or ''thematic retreats'';
    • To play a more pro-active advisory role to TWGs, advising for better functioning of TWGs, and act as a resource center, including enabling exchanges of lessons and experiences among TWGs and providing updates on aid/development effectiveness knowledge, forums for networking and sector's donor mapping of sector (annually);
    • To further promote TWG capacity on the ODA Database system, PBA, results-based framework, the use of country systems through ''clinics'' and TWG meetings and retreat;
    • To play a catalyst role in monitoring the implementation of the TWGs' Action Plans and the progress of the JMIs;
    • To assist TWGs in addressing the inter-ministerial coordination and cross-cutting issues, which are one of the most challenging problems for almost all TWGs. Most TWGs proposed GDCC as a forum for discussion on these as well as for reactivating the mutual accountability mechanism it foresees.


Specific actions


For some TWGs like LJR and PAR, to regain momentum, trust and support for their TWGs is critical for the revitalization of the TWG roles and functions. Re-engaging DPs is also necessary. These TWGs see the importance of this and so will prepare the TWG Work/Action Plans to communicate a concrete plan for implementation of the reforms.


Other TWGs, including Agriculture and Water, Forestry Reform, Fisheries, Land, Mine Action and HIV/AIDS raised the significant roles of NGOs and/or private sector in the TWG work. They suggest possibilities to include the representatives of these groups in the membership of their TWGs. This will be enabled by reviewing the composition of the TWG, together with that of the sub-groups. Moreover, two TWGs in particular RWSSH and Gender encourage enhanced harmonization among DPs and DP lead facilitators to agree on main issues among themselves before meeting with the TWG. Uniquely, for TWG-IRI, attracting new donors supporting the infrastructure sector, including China and other non-traditional donors, is one key factor contributing to the TWG better performance; while TWG-RWSSH indicates a need for an annual donor mapping exercise to identify the different interventions and approaches implemented by stakeholders and to track information on off-budget support to the RWSSH sector. CDC support has been requested for this exercise and CDC has responded through enhanced reporting on TWG support by DPs being made available in its ODA trends analysis (Table 4 on page 15).


Cross-cutting issues and inter-ministerial coordination have been the center of attention for many TWGs. These include those working on the public service reforms: LJR, PAR and D&D, on the sensitive issues like land, on agriculture and related sectors like A&W, FR, Fi, and on gender mainstreaming. TWG-LJR and PAR identify a need to set up a mechanism to intensify dialogue between existing cross-sectoral coordination mechanisms. Specifically, TWG-PAR will identify joint objectives and activities with MEF and NCDD-S and other line ministries working in key service delivery areas in order to create synergies in mobilizing additional supports for Public Administration Reform. TWG-D&D sets out to increase engagement by line ministries in the work of Sub-national Democratic Development by inviting them to represent and share experiences together with progress with respect to their activities in the areas of SNDD reform. For TWG-A&W, TWG-FR and TWG-Fi, there has been a consensual recommendation for a more cross-sectoral coordination, timely information-sharing and increased links between sector/thematic policies and work of the three sectors and TWGs. Concrete actions include an update of the Strategy on Agriculture and Water; harmonization among the three sector strategies and program/project development; a need for an improved policy dialogue among the three TWGs at an annual seminar/joint session on common issues; and a better engagement between MAFF, FA and FiA.


Similarly, TWG-Gender, responsible for a sector that is very much of cross-cutting issues, proposes a few unique actions for itself. First is to make improved use of sub-groups. These will be used to discuss technical issues and report results to the main TWG meeting every 2 years. The TWG will also establish a gender mainstreaming agenda for the MoWA representatives to take forward in each TWG they sit in and invite line ministries to send a representative to the TWG to report on gender in their own sector. MoWA will set up a common M&E framework for NR4 for its final report in 2018.


Financing and resource mobilization and capacity at sub-national level is a critical issue for a number of TWGs: Fisheries, Health, HIV/AID and RWSSH. Different measures have been and will be done to address a number of issues, such as capacity strengthening, service deliveries, facilitation of roles and functions of TWGs at the provincial level. The approach taken includes peer learning and exchanges of experience and provision of trainings, efforts to mobilize resources including for the local and commune budget, and improved communication lines between the national and sub-national levels.


TWGs like Education and Health, having the necessary criteria for well-functioning TWGs, focus more on the strengthening roles and functions, as well as performance, of the Sub-groups in regard to technical issue discussion. TWG-Education plans to work towards more coherence and harmonization among sets of indicators to monitor results in the Sector. This entails the creation of a common monitoring framework that makes reference to the Education Strategic Plan, Budget Strategic Plan and Annual Operational Plan, and the TWG-Education JMI.  TWG-Health, similarly, continues bringing the Sub-TWGH representatives to the TWG meeting to ensure linkages, information-sharing and reporting.


Having been aware of the issues that would be raised regarding the expanded roles of CDC and P&H, the TWG has planned a number of measures. The TWG clustering could also help ease the cross-sectoral policy dialogues and coordination. TWG are technical bodies accountable and support their host ministries to attain desired results. To better provide clear guidance on the roles and functions of TWGs, CDC has prepared and finalized the 2015 TWG Guideline, with comments and suggestions from TWG Chairs, DP Lead Facilitators and the TWG-P&H members. The Guideline, together with the review of these Strengthening Exercise results of all TWGs, was discussed at a meeting of the TWG Network in September 2015. Last, CDC is preparing a work plan and schedule of the TWG-P&H meetings, which are linked to the implementation of the DCPS.

Table 1. Summary of the Strengthening Exercise Reports submitted by TWGs



of the exercise

                                                           Main findings/recommendations

Common actions

Specific actions



TWG retreat

To have regular meetings (at least quarterly);  conduct annual sector retreat to review results; and, if necessary, ad-hoc meetings should be convened,  with well-thought-through agenda and concrete action points for implementation and follow-up;


To prepare/revise/update clear ToRs of the TWG and secretariat, as well as work plan or action plan, in line with the CDC TWG Guideline;


To revise the ToR and membership of sub-groups and delegate topics to these technical sub-groups that can meet informally and report to the main TWG;


To review and update the JMI;


To set up/enhance effective communication mechanisms are needed for regular and timely information-collecting and -sharing between members;


To intensify policy dialogue at the TWG level to discuss key policy items and challenges so that key policy decisions are made to ease the implementation on the ground;


To build/strengthen capacity of the secretariat and TWG in coordination, conduct of meetings, dialogues and negotiations, Monitoring and Evaluation, and sub-national supports has been generally raised by most TWGs;


To request CDC to provide extra leadership on clustering/rationalising existing TWGs around thematic frameworks for institutional reforms and capacity development; through the P&H TWG to join TWG working relationships through organizing ''policy seminars'' or ''thematic retreats''; to play a more pro-active advisory role to TWGs, advising for better functioning of TWGs, and act as a resource centre, including enabling exchanges of lessons and experiences among TWGs and providing updates on aid/development effectiveness knowledge, forums for networking and sector's donor mapping of sector; to further promote TWG capacity on ODA Database system, PBA, results-based framework, the use of country systems through ''clinics'' and TWG meetings and retreat; and to play a catalyst role in monitoring the implementation of the TWGs' Action Plans and the progress of the JMIs;


To address the inter-ministerial coordination and cross-cutting issues, and GDCC could be a forum for discussions on these as well as for reactivating the mutual accountability mechanism it foresees


Regain momentum and trust on the TWG

Revise and update the Plan of Action from 2005 to mobilise support and set out a concrete plan for implementation

Update/revise the list of membership

Improve effectiveness of the secretariat; financial support and capacity building measures are needed

Conduct a workshop to review the Legal and Judicial Reform Documents and update the Plan of Action (June 2015)


TWG meeting

Re-engage DPs to support and mobilise additional resources for PAR as a strategic and medium-term decision

Set up an institutional mechanism to intensify dialogue between existing cross-sectoral coordination mechanism

Identify joint objectives and activities with MEF, MOIINCDD-S and line ministries in key services delivery areas

Further develop capacity including performance management, e-government, and other advanced HR management


TWG meeting

Increase engagement by line ministries by inviting them to present and share experiences/progress in TWG meetings

Organise sub-committees based on the three JMIs for the SNDD reform

Agree on Action Points at the conclusion of each TWG meeting and include a follow-up of progress


TWG meeting

Sub-groups to consider DCPS themes (PBAs); Seminars to address cross-sectoral and cross-cutting issues

Revitalise support to other TWGs (social; economic; and cross-cutting clusters)

A meeting of the TWG Network will be used to review TWG work and DCPS implementation

Review and revise the TWG Guideline during Q3 of 2015.

Prepare a work plan and schedule of TWG meetings linked to DCPS.

Strengthen leadership and capacity in other TWGs is the main factor.


TWG meeting

Maintain the participation of current NGO members; to engage more with the private sector

Revisit/update the Strategy on AW and establish task forces and/or subgroups as per recognised needs

Identify agenda items that reflect agriculture as a sector rather than as a ministry mandate

Encourage a more active sharing of information and debate on agricultural water (irrigation) issues

Improve cross-sectoral coordination, i.e. between the TWG-AW and the two other TWGs on Forestry and Fisheries


TWG retreat

Hold an annual seminar among TWG-FR; TWG-Fi; and TWG-AW on common issues

Improve alignment and harmonization among the three sector strategies and program/project development

Establish a forest development fund and other funds supporting forest management

Strengthen M&E mechanisms, including staff M&E capacity; strengthen institutional and human capacity of the sector

Promote the use of PBA and country systems


TWG meeting

Review the membership of TWG and its sub-groups in addition to revising ToR

Seek active participation of DPs involved in economic development issues

Identify new tools to support dialogue between members: web-based dialogue and document repository platform

Better the engagement, communications and information-sharing between FiA and MAFF through TWG mechanism

Propose for a yearly joint session of the TWG-AW, TWG-FR and TWG-Fisheries, for a global review of the sector

Subjects related to sub-national fisheries issues to be included in the TWG meeting agenda

For financing and resources for the sub-national support, await the new structure, guided by the new Fisheries Law

Strategic directions, TA and increase in RGC budgetary contribution needed to support human resource development

Strengthen the integrated FiA/DP M&E system; reinforced link to regional initiatives/projects in fisheries


TWG meeting

Consider including the NGO representation of at least 3 NGOs

Enhance partnership and harmonization with DPs on aid and development effectiveness through the agreed JMIs

Some areas for improvements in terms of meeting arrangements, agenda and conducting of preparatory meeting

Address the lack of commitment by members and coordination and partnership between TWG-Land and other TWGs

Mine Action

TWG meeting

Invite representatives of MEF and MFAIC to join the TWG while maintaining the current NGO members

Strengthen capacity of the TWG to deliver its roles and functions

Conduct at least 2 TWG meetings per year and as many sub-group meetings as required


TWG meeting

Enhance more participation from DPs (particularly, China and other non-traditional DPs in the sector)

Two DP lead facilitators, instead of one, should be rotated in every two or three

The Secretariat of TWG-IRI should be transferred to the General Department of Planning.

To enhance sustainability in producing the transport overview, preparation role to be transferred to MPWT


TWG meeting

Review membership to include private sector, at least at sub-working group where appropriate

Representatives from relevant line ministries should invited to join the sub-sector working groups

Strengthen performance of the Sub-groups, including conduct of meeting

Further strengthen capacity of the secretariat

Increase more coherence between sets of Sector indicators developed (ESP; BSP and AOP; JMI)

A follow-up mechanism needed to implement decisions made at the TWG meeting


TWG meeting

Continue the current composition and roles and functions of the sub-groups

Improve communication on the status and progress of policy proposals and decisions (by TWG sub-groups)

Use the TWGH Secretariat meeting is more ideal venue for selected policy discussion

Facilitate and strengthen the TWG functions at the provincial level

Have Health Partner retreats to strengthen coordination of HP's suggestions for the TWG agenda and inputs;


Key informant interview;


Document review;

TWG meeting

Harmonise relevant key DPs in a more integrated and coordinated way, facilitated by DP Lead Facilitator.

High level meeting between Chair, Co-Chair and some main DPs should be organized separately to raise profile

In the process of re-organizing the sub-groups (including roles and functions)

Start recruiting an assistant to the Secretariat

Conduct a review of all the major RWSSH interventions to look deeper into their approaches, for better alignment

Key policy items that are identified by implementers as the constraint need to be brought up and thoroughly discussed

Systematically track the resources flowing into the sector to formulate NAP (CDC could provide support in this regard)

Create a meaningful platform for functional transfer to the sub-national level for some parts of the TWG responsibilities


TWG meeting

Review the membership and composition to include private sector representatives in addition to civil society

Review to strengthen the structure of the TWG-HIV/AIDS as the number of partners working on HIV is declining

Align Sub-TWGs with the Strategic areas of the NSPIV

Discuss the need and opportunities to streamline the various existing coordination mechanisms (i.e. with TWG H)

Review to further improve overall aid effectiveness and governance for the HIV response when the NSPIV is available

Need to increase domestic resources for HIV activities; efforts in mobilising is in the process, including local/commune

Build capacity to coordinate the HIV responses, conduct dialogues and for increased sub-national governance capacity

Gender Equity

TWG meeting

Use Sub-groups for discussion on technical issues (report results to the main plenary TWG every 2 years)

Use TWG meetings for high-level policy issues only

Encourage harmonisation among DP and CSO groups before the TWG meeting

Play a more active role in aid coordination and monitoring under the framework of NR4

Provide orientation and capacity building for new members; a new co-facilitator for WEE and one for Governance SG

Establish common M&E framework for NR4 for its final report in 2018

Strengthen knowledge and capacity on how to engender the SDGs and how to prepare for ASEAN integration

Establish a gender mainstreaming agenda for the MoWA representatives to take forward in each TWG they sit on

Line ministries to send a representative to the TWG-G to represent and report on gender in their own sector

Develop a modality for joint monitoring and how to support other TWGs related to gender


TWG meeting(partially discussed the Strengthening Exercise)

Develop clear TWG-PPR Work PlanTwo sub groups to update their ToR and share with the reporting team before end of March To conduct two full TWG meetings a year (the first is during end of June; the second is in December) Each sub-group to conduct regular quarter meetings and keep the co-chairs and co-facilitators updated and informed To develop an agenda template for the meetings to track the progress and timeline for each activity agreed


No report received



No report received



No report received


3. Progress on Implementation of the JMIs



The JMIs which are based on principles of mutual accountability for achieving development results provide a framework for setting medium-term goals based on development outcomes that have been prioritized in the Rectangular Strategy - Phase III. They are therefore also closely associated with priority targets defined in the NSDP and its monitoring framework. Progress in implementing the 20 JMIs has been reported. Challenges encountered and recommendations on any follow-up actions were also elaborated in reports received from TWGs. Overall progress has been encouraging (see Table 2), although the speed and depth varies across priority areas. Fourteen of the 20 JMIs reported on-going work with good progress towards achieving targets by end 2015, while six reported concern related to their JMI implementation. These latter TWGs include TWG-D&D, TWG-MA, TWG-Education, TWG-Health, TWG-RWSSH, and TWG-HIV/AIDS. The progress in implementing the 20 JMIs is reported in five sections, in accordance with the priority areas of RS III, namely (i) good governance, (ii) promotion of the agricultural sector, (iii) development of physical infrastructure, (iv) private sector development and employment, and (v) capacity building and human resource development.


Core of the RS - Phase III: Good governance


The Legal and Judicial Reform TWG (JMI 1) reported that overall there is good promising progress made on the implementation of activities leading to Output 1 (the dissemination and enforcement of the three main laws concerning judicial system) and Output 2 (the improved Case Management of the new General Department for Court Organization and the deployment of related new court staff at court level). However, Output 3 on non-custodial alternatives was report to have made only small progress. At least two main challenges faced the TWG. These include: (i) a need for a significant increase in the judicial budget; and (ii) more opportunities for meaningful consultations and engagement of relevant stakeholders. As a result of this review, the TWG has been clear in setting out a number of follow-up actions required for further success in its JMI implementation.


For Public Administration Reform work (JMI 2), targets have been achieved. The National Program for Public Administrative Reform (NPAR) 2015-2018 including an action matrix was approved by the RGC. The NPAR's Action Plans have been identified to achieve three following goals: (i) promote the delivery of public service; (ii) strengthen human resource management and development; and (iii) improve the pay system. Since NPAR has already been approved since January 2015 (Output Indicator achieved), the TWG in 2015 has revised its targets upwards and work on new output indicators and activities, with a specific focus on jointly implementing NPAR with the other core governance reforms in selected priority sectors.


The TWG-D&D (JMI 3) reported that Output Indicator 1 (Subnational Authorities (SNAs) collect at least 3% of their total budget in the form of tax of non-tax revenue by 2015) will not be met by the timeframe; however, this indicator remains relevant, and so has been retained in the design of the new implementation plan covering 2015-2017. The key challenge to progress remains a lack of consensus within the General Directorates on the Ministry of Economy and Finance regarding the issue of own sources of revenue. The second output indicator on the transfer of at least two important functions, staff and resources by line ministries to SNAs remains appropriate. Nonetheless, significant progress is needed for it to be achieved by end-2015. The main constraints to the transfer reported are reluctance of the ministries; a need for Civil Service Reform to establish the legal framework for SNA personnel including the mechanisms for the personnel to be transferred from line ministries to SNAs; a need for these issues to be dealt with at the highest level of the government; and human resource constraints within the NCDD-S. Moreover, all preparations for implementing the Social Accountability Strategic Plan have been completed. Since the main implementation phase beginning in 2015, significant progress has been made in resource mobilization with DPs to support NGO demand-side activities; therefore, the indicator is on-track to be achieved.


Further improvement in budget comprehensiveness and transparency has been reported by the TWG-PFM to be on-track and on-going. Implementation of the second output on improvement in financial accountability with a further improvement in budget credibility and accountability line has also been on-track (with domestic revenue collection increased by 1.45% in 2014, exceeding the target of 0.5% of GDP). Work on the remaining indicators is still on-going. The TWG also reported their on-going work toward having at least 10 ministries implementing full program budgeting and piloting budget entity (Output 3). A number of challenges have been raised. Generally, these include a lack of quality Budget Strategic Plans (BSPs) preparation; unclear sub-programs; limited capacity for revenue forecasting, cash planning and management in the responsible institutions/agencies; and the complexity of the program budgeting implementation. That said, better partnership and cooperation, as well as the continued firm support by line ministries/agencies, is essential for the Public Financial Management Reform Program. The TWG-PFM identifies a need to establish concrete mechanisms in providing both necessary in-house and outside trainings to relevant stakeholders.


The Partnership and Harmonization TWG (JMI 5) reported mixed progress. Since after the finalization of the Development Cooperation and Partnerships Strategy (2014-2018), the share of ODA using PFM systems and the procurement system shows sign of improvement; however, the use of PBAs is actually a little bit declined comparing to the baseline data. In addition to the use of PFM systems, the aid on budget also improved to 74% as information was provided by development partners to the ODA Database for budgeting purposes. This is due to the adoption of a different methodology; the higher figure of 74% uses the data that is provided through the ODA Database to MEF as part of Budget formulation. This approach is felt to more fully reflect the efforts of development partners to report their projected disbursements to RGC via the ODA Database, which are then shared with MEF, although not always included in the Budget. Using the same methodology as the baseline produces a figure of 17.2%. The concern here is not that there has been a decline but, rather, that donors completing the ODA Database data entry are not sufficiently aware of what information is required and the numbers are therefore not reliable. CRDB/CDC has provided a renewed outreach program to ensure data quality is improved.


Regarding the progress of partnership work, the P&H-TWG is supporting RGC in leading development effectiveness work. The DCPS (2014-2018) addresses a joint commitment by the Government and DPs in strengthening effective partnership work towards achieving results. The membership of the TWG was updated. The P&H-TWG has led the process of TWG performance review which has been followed up through a 'strengthening exercise' due to be completed during Q2. A meeting of the TWG Network Meeting was conducted in Q3 in order to identify, discuss and agree measures to improve performance. In the next step, further progress must be sought by: (a) dedicated support to PBAs across line ministries that have identified these as priorities; and (b) continued implementation of PFM reform at sector level to strengthen PFM and procurement systems. Development partners must also be encouraged to understand and use national systems, employing capacity development support or additional safeguards to address fiduciary risk. This includes improved reporting to the ODA Database to support planning/budgeting and to ensure accurate P+H JMI monitoring.


The TWG-PPR reported either completed or on-going status with good progress for all its 3 Outputs. First, the target for the finalization, approval and implementation of the NSDP along with the 3-Year Public Investment Plan (PIP) scheme and the strengthening of the planning, monitoring and evaluation mechanisms have been partially-met with good progress made. Second, the preparation of the concept note and dialogue on possibility of linking Health PIPs and NSDP has been completed. Third, the work towards the approval and implementation of the National Strategy for Development of Statistics (NSDS) 2016-2018 and National Science and Technology Master Plan 2014-2020 for better planning and higher productivity is being done with some targets met. To continue the good progress and make sure all targets met, the TWG-PPR emphasizes the necessity to continue quality cooperation between stakeholders in following up actions agreed at the TWG meetings and the sub-group meetings, aligning DPs' support, and building the TWG capacities in regard to statistics, planning, M&E and other related topics. 


The work on Anti-Corruption has also been reported to be on-track in achieving targets. Self-assessment report on laws and law enforcement in relation to fighting against corruption has been drafted and submitted to the Council of Ministers for input and comment. The Executive Summary Report on the UNCAC Implementation Review of Cambodia was set to be developed by the UN and UNCAC state parties. However, the task is not without its challenges. The process of collecting relevant data and statistics to complete the self-assessment report has been difficult because Cambodia does not yet have information technology system to manage, collect and analyze information on the number of cases at relevant institutions/ministries and courts. The ACU has also confirmed that 100 percent of Higher Secondary School civic education teachers were trained on anti-corruption education, though the process is on-going. Progress on cooperation between the private sector and the ACU in anti-corruption ethics and compliance in business is enhanced through: 3 consultation meetings with the participation of 28 private sector entities and 10 government private sector working groups; 20 companies having signed an MOU on Cooperation with ACU; and the Guidebook on Anti-Corruption Program being finalized.


Side 1 of the Rectangular Strategy: Promotion of the Agriculture Sector


By March 2015, achievement of the 3.18t/ha target on average rice yield was almost achieved (3.08t/ha). The output was lower than expected due to the unsuitable climate encountered drought in the early season and the Mekong flood in the middle of wet season. The expected output indicator would be 3.122t/ha in 2015-2016. However, the TWG has had good achievements for the remaining outputs. The Crop Diversification Index reached 39% (exceeding the 35% target) and irrigated area for rice crop reached 1.546 million hectare (exceeding the target of 1.545 million hectare). The 10-year Strategic Planning Framework for Livestock was set to be submitted for endorsement by end of April 2015. Role and functioning of the TWG-AW has been revised and endorsed during the plenary TWG meeting in early April in line with the TWG Strengthening exercise supported by CDC and the P+H TWG.


Progress was realized in the implementation of sustainable forest management and conservation to ensure a contribution to poverty alleviation and macro-economic growth (JMI 9). The Community Forestry is set to be enhanced and increased and the reforestation on non-forest and/or heavily degraded forest areas is on-going with some progress made. 66,932 hectares of Protected Forests and Wildlife Conservation Areas was established (about 67% of target set). The last output on sustainable Forest Financing program through one signed Emission Reduction Purchasing Agreement was completed. Therefore, the TWG-FR has set a new target of 200,000 Voluntary Carbon Units to be sold in 2015. Despite the good progress, a number of challenges have been raised. These include the interdependence on MAFF in the approval of Community Forest establishment; limited capacity and human resource in the Forestry administration; insufficient fund supports; time-consuming and complex procedures and the issues of harmonizing the implementation of REDD+ at both national and subnational levels.


For Fisheries, by the first quarter of 2015, good progress has been made on the Output 1 (JMI 10) on wild-harvested fish production, effective deep pools protection, registered Community Forests being strengthened and the establishment of community fish refuges. The demarcation work has not been significantly implemented both for flooded and coastal forests during the reporting period because of other budgetary priorities. This, however, will be carried out in Q3 and Q4 of 2015. The indicator on aquaculture production was 120,000 tons in 2014 (increased by 20% in annual projection), exceeding the target of 102,000 tons produced by the end of 2015. One MoU on general cooperation in the fisheries sector and a separate one called MoA on the cooperation arrangement on safety assurance for export fish and fishery products between Cambodia and Vietnam had been drafted and exchanged for comments. The National Strategic Plan for Fish and Fisheries Value Chain has been initiated and the consultant recruitment for developing the document has been processed. The draft national standards for fish paste, sun-dried fish and quick frozen shrimp/prawn have already been approved by the National Standard Council and being put for official endorsement by the National Board Committee (inter-ministerial) meeting. The constraints faced in the implementation are mainly related to limited capacity of FiA's M&E and the quality of the system itself, which needs to be well-adapted by all partners in order to have good synchronization in the future. The TWG emphasizes the importance of CDC's further technical support in regard to the PBA awareness.


The Comprehensive Land Policy (JMI 11) was finalized and submitted to the Council of Ministers for endorsement in March 2015. The first draft of Land Management and Urban Planning Law is being discussed at the technical level, and the draft Construction Law is being developed. This is on-track to being publicly consulted and finalized by end-2015. Moreover, the National Housing Policy has been adopted since May 2014, with the General Department for Housing and line departments and bureaus established and Prakas on establishing sub-national mechanisms in place. At least 28 Indigenous Peoples Communities (IPC) will be registered by the end of 2015, as to date there have been 21 communities involved in collective land titling, while the remaining 7 are in the planning process (the target set was 10 IPCs). Until March 2015, 26 Interim Protective Measure has been provided to the IPCs that have submitted their applications. In addition, a final draft of instructions to convert private land title of indigenous peoples to communal land title was finalized for internal review and consultation and the external consultation is expected to be conducted in May 2015. Training courses on the Sub Decree 83 were provided for the provincial state land management committee, district working groups and NGOs in three different provinces. A number of training courses were also conducted to enhance capacity of the Cadastral Commissions at district and provincial levels. On the last output, stock-taking exercise of state land available for social land concession is under review. Overall, good progress has been made in implementing JMI 11.


The target to release land (of mine/ERW affected areas) and for it to be used productively by intended beneficiaries for the development of their livelihoods and for rural infrastructure has been mostly met. However, there has not been any training to the Mine Action Planning Unit staff members on land rights yet. In 2014, there were 154 mine/ERW casualties reported, which is still more than the target of less than 100. The set target of at least 1,000 villages visited during Quality of Life Survey by the CMAA staff was not met yet (actual: 162 villages visited in 2014). The TWG-MA reported that the set target for 2014-2015 will be unachievable due to limited number of their staff. Thus, a new indicator of at least 500 villages visited has been set instead.


Side 2 of the Rectangular Strategy: Development of Physical Infrastructure


Transport system improvement has been considered an important priority as part of infrastructure building in Cambodia and the Ministry of Public Works and Transportation has planned for a number of outputs to be achieved by end of 2015. These include the starting of the construction activities of major roads (NR1; NR2; NR3; NR5 and NR7); expand SHV port; legislate the Port Act; and to formulate expressway development plan of priority sections. These works are in the process with some targets partially met. The TWG-IRI has reported some slight delays occurred. Another output on national electricity grid network improvement to complete the construction of the 115KV and 230KV transmission lines been successful. However, the TWG-IRI is continuing the work.


Side 3 of the Rectangular Strategy: Private Sector Development and Employment


The Council for the Development of Cambodia reports progress in the implementation of private sector development indicators (JMI 14). The Business Plan for the National Single Window was endorsed in 2014, but implementation is contingent to mobilization of budget. Moreover, the National Trade Repository (NTR) was expected to be launched in August 2015. Certificates of Origin have been automated with support from the World Bank Group, and the automation of company registration is being tendered. Progress has been reported on activities for improving the Business Enabling Environment as follows: (1) draft Amended Investment Law is under discussion; (2) Sub-Decree for setting up a National Committee on Non-Tariff Measures and NTR has been passed since 2014; and (3) the draft E-commerce Law has been finalized by the Council of Ministers.


Side 4 of the Rectangular Strategy: Capacity Building and Human Resource Development


During the reporting period, the Education TWG (JMI 15) reported that the percentage of five-year old children in ECE increased from 56.6% in SY 2012/13 to 61.4%, below the target of 66% for SY 2014/15. Additional efforts for achieving the target and reviews of the target in the Mid-term Review of Education Strategic Plan (ESP) 2014-2018 in 2016 are required as the target is perhaps too ambitious. The lower secondary gross enrollment rate increased from 53.6% in SY 2012/13 to 55.3% in 2013/14 and decreased slightly to 55.1% in SY 2014/15 against the target set at 66.9%; while the survival rate to grade 9 increased from 30.7% in SY 2012/13 to 35.7% in SY 2014/15, achieving the target of 35% set. The lower secondary drop out slightly decreased from 21.2% in SY 2012/13 to 21% in 2013/14; however, this is far from achieving the target of 19% in SY 2014/15. Thus, further efforts are required to catch up. The RGC provided 59,971 scholarships for lower secondary students (59.8% of whom are female), which is already above the 55,000 target. Results of the national assessments of students learning in Khmer and Mathematics at Grade 3 and Grade 6 have been analyzed, and the dissemination of the results to subnational level is on-going. All the targets set for primary and lower secondary students receiving textbooks have already been achieved (Grade 1-3; 4-6; and 7-9). Some general follow-ups actions have been identified. These include a need to strengthen the process of the TWG-Education at the subnational level where aid effectiveness could not only make at policy level, but also at implementation level; implementation gaps among regions to be identified with respective interventions; and an increase in involvement by communities and private sector in education.


With regard to Health (JMI 16), progress against the targets set was mixed. The share of deliveries at health facilities increased to 83% in 2014, achieving the target, but on-going progress remains to achieve the 85% set for 2015. The percentage of Health Centers with at least one secondary midwife increased from 75% in 2013 to 80% in 2014, below the targets of 85% in 2014 and 100% in 2015. However, this was a result of a time-lagged effect of the HC constructions to be functional only in 2014. In this regard, the target of this indicator is proposed by the TWG-Health to be 85% for 2015. The contraceptive prevalence rate increased from 34% in 2013 to 39% in 2014, achieving the target of 37%. The percentage of exclusively breastfeeding until 6 months was set to reach 75% in 2014 and 76% in 2015. However, the actual result was only 65% in 2014 (a major decrease from 74% in 2010). The Ministry of Health and the Health Partners perceived several challenges, including an increase of young women in employment (secondary and tertiary sectors); the easy access to Breast Milk Substitute by strong advertisement campaigns; and the increased value of women's time in the phase of rapid socio-economic development. Therefore, an indicator revision has been proposed to ''percentage of early initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth increases from 65.8% in 2010 to 70% in 2015 among women who delivered at health facilities''.


The TWG-RWSSH reported on-going work in regards to the establishment of the National Program for Rural Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene, with articulated roles and functions at national and subnational levels, which is on-track to achieving the target. The TWG also mentioned that resources to be allocated to RWSSH by the government increased by at least 10% annually, as targeted; nonetheless, there has been a delay reported in the implementation of program-based budgeting for rural water and sanitation since the DP/NGO Mapping is still in process. The target on the development of Management Information System (MIS) (by December 2014) had been delayed but is still in progress. This has led to a delay in the training of relevant staff in charge on the functioning of MIS system and data collection (previously set to be done by June 2015).


Regarding HIV/AIDS, the target on 80% of coverage for interventions for MARPs (Output 1/JMI 18) has not been reached yet and the implementation is on-going. One main challenge to this is the data recording issue as there was no surveillance update of data conducted in 2014, as the TWG reported. The targets on percentage of adults and children with HIV currently receiving treatment have not been reported yet, though this work is on-going. In addition, the work leading to costing NSPIV through best available evidence and resource mobilization plan is still on-going as the completion of NSPIV faced a delay and was set to be done in June 2015.


The Social Protection, Food Security and Nutrition TWG (JMI 19) reported good progress made. The strategic national documents such as the National Strategy for Food Security and Nutrition (NSFSN), the Road Map for Nutrition 2014-2020, and the investment plan for Nutrition have already been adopted, with several costing exercises done. Therefore, the TWG has proposed for a revision on the output, which is ''The National Strategy for Food Security and Nutrition (NSFSN), the MoH, MRD and MAFF Road Maps for Nutrition, and their respective investment plans for Nutrition are developed coherently through meaningful consultation and formally adopted along with enforcement of existing guidelines by the RGC.'' The work strengthening the information and knowledge management, data analysis and coordination at national and subnational level to measure the evolution of FSN situation is still on-going, but remains challenging. In addition, some targets and activities set for the approval of the National Social Protection by 2014 have been achieved and continued, while some remain in progress. The TWG thus proposes a change to the second Output to ''A National Social Protection Action Plan is approved in 2015 to scale up the delivery of social protection programs through an effective, efficient, and coordinated system.''


On Gender (JMI 20), the Cambodian Gender Assessment 2014 and the Five-Year Neary Rattanak IV 2014-2018 were finalized and officially launched in December 2014. Line ministries have disseminated the documents internally through their Gender Mainstreaming Action Groups. The National Gender Policy document has also been drafted internally for further review based on the outcome and findings from the forthcoming Gender Audit on Governance, Leadership and Decision-making. Progress has been made regarding the MAF implementation work until end of 2015; the finalization of the policy on Women's Economic Empowerment (WEE); and the approval of NAPVAW II by the Council of Ministers. The proportion of women in decision-making in the civil service was reported to increase from 19% in 2012 to 20% in 2014; the proportion of female civil servants has increased from 37% in 2013 to 38% in 2014; while the rest of targets are not reported due to the pending PBA on women in leadership.

Table 2. Summary of JMI Implementation Status


      Action Needed

 Summary Progress

                 Core of the Rectangular Strategy: Good Governance

1. Judicial service & access to justice are strengthened

1. Dissemination and enforcement of the three main laws concerning judicial system

2. Case Management improved

3. Lawyers for the poor

1. Good progress

2. Promising progress

3. Some progress

2. Cambodia Civil Service is more transparent, efficient, and effective

Action Plan for Administration Reform approved by 2014

(Compensation Reform; Public service standards; HR management and development)

NPAR 2015-2018 approved

Action Plan prepared

3. Public service delivery brought closer to citizens


1. Legal framework and capacity of SNAs strengthened for own source revenue collection

2. Functional reassignment process implemented (from Central Government to SNAs)

3. Social Accountability Strategic Plan implemented

1. Target not met, policy analysis reviewed

2. On-going, with small progress

3. On-going, all preparations completed

4. More effective and efficient public financial management

1. Further improvement in budget comprehensiveness and transparency

2. Improvement in financial accountability/improvement in budget credibility and accountability

3. Further improvement in budget policy linkages

1. On-going, partially met

2. On-going, on-track

3. On-track

5. Development cooperation programmed and delivered in line with RGC's priorities/principles

1(a). Increased share of ODA is delivered through PBAs; (b). using procurement systems

2(a). Increased share of ODA reflected in RGC budget and plans

2(b). Financing of development priorities based on all available resources (ODA & RGC's)

3. Improved effectiveness of TWGs and alignment to NSDP 2014-2018 priorities

1. a). Target unmet; b). target exceeded

2. a). Target met; b). data shared with MEF and TWG membership

3. The TWGs external review conducted

6. NSDP 2014-2018 is approved toward achieving all national goals, including CMDGs, and assessed based on quality data

1. NSDP Document finalized, approved, and implemented along with the3-Year PIP scheme and the Planning and M&E mechanisms strengthened

2. Link between Health PIPs and NSDP initiated on pilot basis

3. National Strategy for Development of Statistics (NSDS) 2016-2018 and National Science and Technology Master Plan 2014-2020 approved and implemented

1. Partially met, on-going & good progress

2. Completed

3. Partially met, on-going

7. Combat corruption

1.  Necessary legal frameworks and measures for fighting against corruption are identified

2.  Anti-Corruption Education is provided to Lower and Higher Secondary School students and students/trainees at RSA, RCJP, RMA, RPA, and SMS

3.  Cooperation between the private sector and the ACU in anti-corruption is enhanced.

1. Draft assessment submitted to CoM

2. On-going, good progress

3. Successful, on-going

Side 1 of the Rectangular Strategy: Promotion of the Agriculture Sector

8. Enhanced agricultural productivity and diversification and  water resource management

1. Average rice yield reached 3.18t/ha

2. The Crop Diversification Index reached 35% of total sown area

3. Irrigated area for rice crop reached 1.545 million ha

4. SPFL document submitted to RGC for signature

1. Partially met, on-track

2. Target exceeded

3. Target exceeded

4. To be submitted for endorsement

9. Sustainable forest management and conservation

1. Community Forestry strengthened and increased

2. Reforestation on non-forest and/or heavily degraded forest areas

3. Establishment of Protected Forests and Wildlife Conservation Areas

4. Sustainable Forest Financing program through one signed ERPA

1. On-going

2. On-going

3. Partially met, on-going

4. Completed

10. Mgt, conservation, and dev't of sustainable fisheries

1. The availability of fresh water and marine fisheries production remains stable

2. Fresh water and marine aquaculture production substantially increased

3. Improved support for quality & safety of fish products to fishers, processors & exporters

1. Partially met, on-going, good progress

2. Target met

3. Documents drafted, awaiting approval

11. Administration, management and distribution of land

1. Comprehensive Land Policy and legal framework on LMUP completed

2. Land Registration Process is strengthened ( focus on IPCs and vulnerable households)

3. Countrywide acceleration of implementing the SLCs distribution program

1. Partially met, on-going dialogue

2. On-track; good progress

3. Stock-taking of state land under review



12. National mine action program

1. Released land is productively used by intended beneficiaries for development purposes

2. Reduction in the number of reported mine/ERW casualties

3. Mine/ERW survivors are informed of their rights and have access to effective support

1. Some targets met, on-going

2. Target unmet

3. Target unmet, on-going

Side 2 of the Rectangular Strategy: Development of Physical Infrastructure

13. Improved access to efficient and safe infrastructure system

1. (i) commence construction activities along major roads, (ii) expand SHV port and legislate the Port Act, and (iii) formulate expressway development plan of priority sections

2. Complete the construction of the 115 KV and 230 KV transmission lines

1. Partially met, on-going, with some slight delays

2. Successful and on-going

Side 3 of the Rectangular Strategy: Private Sector Development and Employment

14. Increased trade flows and improved Business Enabling Environment

1. Increased trade flows, by streaming border procedures and improving transparency of trade and investment rules

2. Business Enabling Environment improved as a result of regulatory reforms

1. Partially met, on-going

2. Amended Investment Law under discussion, Sub-Decree on NTM&NTR passed, draft E-commerce law finalized

Side 4 of the Rectangular Strategy: Capacity Building and Human Resource Development

15. Completion Rate of Students in Basic Education increased

1.  Increased student promotion rate in primary particularly in early grades

2.  Student enrolment in Lower Secondary increased and drop-out at the lower-secondary reduced and controlled

3.  Student learning performance in Khmer and Mathematics at Grade 3 and Grade 6 improved

1. Partially met, on-track

2. Gross enrolment rate below target, survival rate to grade 9 met, lower secondary drop-out rate far from target, target met for lower secondary scholarships

3. Target met

16. A functional and sustainable national health system

1. Improved RMCH through enhancing quality and effectiveness of health care services via:

(a) Expanded coverage of deliveries by skilled birth attendants at health facility

(b) Expanded consultation services on birth spacing options

2. Improved nutrition status through: increased provision of counseling on exclusive breastfeeding and appropriate complementary feeding

1. a). On-going;

1. b). Partially met, on-going progress

2. Backward, far below target

17. Improved wat-san in rural areas

1. National Program for RWSSH reflected roles of national and subnational level established

2. Resource flow of RWSSH sector increased

3. Unified RWSSH sector Management System (MIS) developed and operationalized

1. Partially met, on-track

2. Partially met, some delays

3. Delayed, back in progress now

18. Reduce new HIV/AIDS  infections/death and increase ART coverage

1. 80% Coverage interventions for MARPs

2. Eligible PLHIV on ARV treatment for Adult and  HIV infected children

3. Costed  NSP IV using best available evidence  and resource mobilization plan endorsed

1. Target unmet, with some progress

2. Partially met, on-going

3. Awaiting the completion of NSPIV

19. Improved SPFSN status and social protection system

1.  FSN strategies for effective and harmonized implementation are developed and funded

2.  A NSP Action Plan is approved (in 2014) to scale up the social protection programs delivery

1. Successful, on-going

2. Partially met, in progress, Action Plan to be approved by 2015 instead

20. Improvement in the enabling environment for gender equality and women's empowerment

1. Neary Rattanak IV and National Policy for GE and WE put in practice

2. Two main gender equality PBAs on WEE & NAPVAW fully functional

3. Women's participation in decision making in the public sector increased to meet the CMDGs

1. Policy documents finalized, approved and being disseminated

2. Established, resourced & implemented

3. On-going, on-track



Table 3. TWG Performance Review: Survey Scoring Summary

TWG Chairs and Lead DP Facilitators were asked 8 questions related to TWG performance and support. Responses were provided confidentially but the following charts show the averages and the range of responses across the 14 TWGs for which both RGC and DPs data was provided.




Quantitative analysis shows that: (i) based on averages across 14 TWGs, RGC rates TWG performance higher on all criteria; (ii) the range is quite high across all questions, meaning that TWGs have a wide range of perceptions and experience; and (iii) RGC average perceptions generally fall in the upper half of the range (i.e. 5-10) while the variance for DPs is larger with the average more often extending to the lower half of the scoring range.

Analysis of TWG funding


The effort to strengthen TWG performance and sector management can be assisted by viewing the data regarding project support and development partner activity in each TWG. This is presented in Table 18 below. The data is presented according to the NSDP categories, however the mapping is not precise (the standard ODA Database sector classifications are more closely referenced to the NSDP). It must also be noted that figures represent total development partner support, some of which is to non-Government actors.


Table 4. 2014 Funding and Development Partner Activity in TWGs


Total 2014
(USD 000s)

# DPs

Projects in TWG

Average project size
(USD 000s)

Social sectors
















Food Security and Nutrition





Rural Water & Sanitation





   Sub-total social sectors





Economic sectors

Agriculture and Water




















Mine Action





Private Sector Development





   Sub-total economic sectors





Infrastructure sectors

Infrastructure & Regional Integration





Cross-sectoral and administrative sectors

Public Administrative Reform





Public Financial Management





Decentralization and Deconcentration










Legal and Judicial Reform





Partnership & Harmonization





Planning & Poverty Reduction





   Sub-total cross-sectoral





Multiple TWGs (> 4)










Grand Total






This data only reports what has been recorded by development partners regarding their TWG activity linked to project funding. It is also acknowledged that some development partners make an important contribution to TWGs and partnership work without having any projects or funding (e.g. the Partnership & Harmonization TWG includes all development partners but only 2 recorded partners and projects). NGOs are also important TWG members but their membership and contributions are not included in this analysis.


The importance of the Health (15 partners, 60 projects), Agriculture & Water (14/64) and Education (12/47) TWGs is immediately apparent. Other TWGs with fewer partners and projects may consider this data and contextualize it with other information in order to reach informed decisions about the best approaches to secure their coordination and development effectiveness objectives. Overall, the Infrastructure and Regional Integration TWG coordinates the largest portfolio (USD 442,911 in 2014, 36% of funding but only 12% of total projects). Social sectors account for approximately a quarter of both funding and projects, while the economic sectors account for an additional fifth. It is also noteworthy that almost one-third of all projects (191/589), representing 11% of total funding, are not associated with any TWG. This emphasizes the need for mechanisms outside of the TWG framework to support coordination work.





4. Conclusion


The efforts in TWG Strengthening Exercise and the preparation of the Joint Monitoring Indicators (JMIs) for 2014-2018 have been critical parts of 2014-2015 results-based partnerships. Notably, the TWG Performance Review Study addressed that, ''the TWG architecture is generally sound but performance is mixed and there are several areas in which improvements should be made in line with joint partnerships including shared learning and commitment that promote individual TWG performance''. This would need a further reinforcement of the individual TWG leadership in supporting and accounting sector results. There is significant evidence of TWGs' focused and committed efforts to review and strengthen their performance. These efforts are to be commended as they demonstrate the leadership of Government and the willingness of all TWG members to work together to achieve improved development results. The findings and recommendations that have been submitted to CDC have been used to revise the Guideline on the Role and Functioning of the TWGs. After being reviewed at a meeting of the TWG Network in the second half of 2015, the Guideline is now finalized and can be used by TWGs to guide their work and improve their performance.


The successful use of the JMI model requires continued effort in three principal areas: focusing on results, mobilizing resources and strengthening partnerships. Focusing on results must begin with a clear link between the JMI and the NSDP or sector policy/plan. This can be increasingly assured by adopting or consolidating a PBA that places the program at the center of all dialogue on results, resourcing, implementation and monitoring. Many TWGs reported to be making good progress on these. Efforts must be maintained and strengthened relates to resource mobilization and partnership building. Most TWGs appear to have made important strides in establishing closer working relations based on respect for national ownership and a mutual commitment to achieving results based on RGC priorities. This important progress can now be consolidated by moving towards improved adoption and utilization of PBA management practices that clearly link sector program objectives with resources and monitoring arrangements. This is very much in line with the recommendations identified in the previous section on TWG performance review. The on-going strengthening of the TWGs in specified areas will also serve to reinforce the implementation of the JMIs.

Mutual Accountability and Partnerships for Results ( Download )