II.      Synthesis of TWG Reports to GDCC

This section synthesizes progress reports of TWGs in four areas: (1) Implementation of TWG Action Plans; (2) Progress on JMIs; (3) Implementation of H-A-R Action Plan; and (4) Resource issues. Table 1 presents a snapshot of overall progress by highlighting important issues that need further consideration and dialogue at the GDCC and in the TWGs.

Implementation of TWG Action Plans

Overall, since the last GDCC meeting held in October 2007, implementation of TWG Action Plans has been progressing well. Some TWGs have completed the identified activities, while for others progress is being made toward implementing the agreed actions. At the same time, it was identified that resources to manage TWG workload continue to be a constraint for most TWGs. Besides the issue of funding, poor attendance by members was identified by one TWG, Fisheries, to have caused delay in implementing activities agreed in the Action Plan. Through the GDCC, TWG Gender has called upon development partners and line ministries and agencies that have developed Gender Mainstreaming Action Plans (GMAP), to support the implementation of the GMAP. The Rural Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene (RWSSH) TWG, its establishment decided by the government last year, has also made headway, and had its secretariat set up and work plan prepared and endorsed. The RWSSH TWG reported that works are underway to prepare a rural water and sanitation sector strategy.

Progress on JMIs

TWGs have reported that, despite challenges, progress is being made to meet the JMI targets agreed at the First Cambodia Development Cooperation Forum in June 2007. For Health, HIV/AIDS, Mine Action, and PFM TWGs, JMI targets that fall within the mandate of the respective TWGs are being met, with a new JMI target being proposed by HIV/AIDS TWG (related to the percentage of HIV positive pregnant women who received anti-retrovirals to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission). For other TWGs, D&D, Food Security and Nutrition, Gender, Infrastructure and Regional Integration, Land, Legal and Judicial Reform, Partnership and Harmonization, Planning and Poverty Reduction, Public Administrative Reform, Rural Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene, good progress is being made. The following constraints, nevertheless, have been observed:

  • Agriculture and Water - Delay in agreeing to a Statement of Principles to guide has presented itself as a constraint in moving forward the implementation of the Strategy on Agriculture and Water.

  • Education - High repetition and drop-out rates in primary school continue to be the main challenges. Strategies on reduction of repetition and drop-out rates therefore need to be identified and capacity to conduct research on these issues need to be developed.

  • Land - Although implementation of the sub-decree on ELCs is making progress, there is still the issue of access to information at the provincial level on ELCs of less than 1000ha. More funding and commitment from local authorities are necessary for forest demarcation.

  • Private Sector Development - Lack of capacity and knowledge present a continued challenge in speeding up implementation of a Risk Management System.

H-A-R Action Plan Implementation

Overall, TWGs have made great strides in addressing the harmonization and alignment issues presented in their respective sectors. The Guidelines on the Roles and Functioning of TWGs, approved by the Royal Government in February 2007, appears to be a useful tool in guiding the work of TWGs. Discussions were made of the Guidelines in FS&N, Health, and RWSSH TWGs, and it has been reported that this has led to new approaches in stregthening the functioning of the TWGs.

Existence of a sector strategy or similar framework has been increasingly seen as necessary and supportive in harmonization and alignment efforts by TWGs and ministries and agencies. This is the case for F&E, Gender, HIV/AIDS, Land, and PPR TWGs, and reinforced by the advances illustrated by the PFM TWG. Moving toward a PBA for mine action and a RWSSH strategy has been considered by Mine Action TWG and RWSSH TWG respectively as an important step in harmonizing and aligning development partners' support. In contrast, the absence of a national program has presented a challenge for A&W TWG in advancing the harmonization and alignment effort.

Yet, the existence of such a strategy or framework on its own is less likely to lead to better aid results or increased harmonization of development activities, unless emphases are made as well to linking plans with resources and results, and adequate attention paid to capacity development. Even in well-established sectors like education, the need to move further to deepen the implementation of the current SWAP is strongly felt. For the sector, different DP procedures are still prevailing, while the number of sector performance indicators is still large and needs to be streamlined. Despite having a SWAP, the degree of fragmentation of DP-supported initiatives is still high and presents a formidable coordination challenge. Similarly, progress that is being made in the health sector presents the ministry's efforts in addressing these challenges. A Taskforce for Deepening H&A in Health has been established, and likewise, an Institutional Development Plan developed, and will be finalized soon, one objective being to strengthen the ministry's institutional capacity and introducing a Performance Management System at the national level.

Ultimately, the need for more capacity development support is the key. Its importance cannot be overstated for Education, F&E, Gender, and Health TWGs as, with development partner support, efforts to strengthen Government systems are taken forward. As illustrated by the D&D TWG, during the formulation process of a National Programme for NCDD, emphasis is being placed on assessments of capacity to perform functions stipulated in the Organic Law at all administrative levels. The National Programme, for the immediate future, will define capacity building priorities necessary for implementation of the Organic Law while at the same time will provide a long-tern capacity building framework to support the government's D&D reform. Progress that is being made by the Council for Administrative Reform on a national policy for human resource development and capacity development, seen in this perspective, is one of the most encouraging milestones.

Resource mobilization

Resources to manage the workload identified in the TWG Action Plans remain a challenge for majority of TWGs. Given the roles and functions expected of TWGs, as provided for in the Guidelines, ensuring a proper functioning of the TWG secretariats has turned out to be one of the priorities that need to be addressed.

Table 1. Summary of TWG progress











Work Plan Implementation

Operation of TWG secretariat & need for support submitted for GDCC consideration.

Implementation on schedule.

On schedule.

Poor member attendance caused delay in activity implementation.

Progress being made.

Implementation on-going but the issue of funding remains.

Implementation on schedule. DPs & LMs to support implementation of GMAPs


On schedule.

Progress on JMI

Delay in signing a statement of principles led to delay in completion of two national program designs. It is expected all five program designs will be completed by end 2008.

Consultations held on draft law on Administration and Management of Capital, Province and Municipality, District and Khan.

National Programme designed, approved and resourced for implementation.

Principles of engagement in support to D&D reform being drafted.

High repetition and drop-out rates in primary school continue to be the main challenges.

Strategies on reduction of repetition and drop-out rates need to be identified and capacity to con- duct research on these issues developed.

Progress made.

Strategic Framework for Food Security and Nutrition 2007-2010 being drafted and expected to be finalized early 2008.

Access to info. at provincial level on ELCs of less than 1000ha.

Need for more fund and commitment from local authorities on forest demarcation.

Sub-decree on domestic violence drafted.

Law on suppression of human trafficking and sexual exploitation passed.

Need to strengthen legal unit within MOWA.

Target of JMI on increase of proportion of deliveries by skilled personnel to 45% in 2007 met.

Implementation on-going on providing salary incentives to midwives.

Targets of JMI met.

Proposed new JMI: "Percentage of HIV-positive pregnant women who received anti-retroviral to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission.

H-A-R Action Plan Implementation

Absence of a national development program made it difficult for full H&A process.

Formulation of the National Programmed includes assessment of capacity at all administrative levels and will define capacity building priorities.

The need for full implementation of SWAp and strengthened coordination between MoEYS & MEF.

Different DP procedures still prevailing and number of sector performance indicators still large and need to be streamlined.

Lack of coherent gov.-led capacity development strategy. DP sup- ported initiatives uncoordinated and fragmented.

Progress made.

Guidelines on Role and Functioning of TWGs discussed.

NRM LP provides framework for H&A efforts.

Capacity development strategy for forestry sector formulated and implemented.

TWG F&E website an important site for information sharing including missions.

Gender Mainstreaming Guideline to ensure harmonized approaches to cross-cutting issue like gender.

Gender needs to be taken into account in aid effectiveness work.

Gender monitoring more systematic and need for support on capacity development.

Focus on H&A practices and health system strengthening.

Implementation of Performance Management System at central level.

Taskforce for Deepening H&A in Health established.

SOP implemented in HSSP.

Guidelines on Role and Functioning of TWGs discussed.

Finalized NSPII provides framework for increased H&A of DP support with government priorities.

Actions taken to ensure plans are linked to resources and results.

Resource Mobilization

Funding sufficient.

Funding sufficient.

Budget share has increased.

TWG Action Plan 2007 fully funded. No other DP contributes to 2008 Action Plan.

Sufficient support for TWG secretariat.

Estimated resources need at 10M. Commitment so far only around 3M.

Further funds need to manage workload in Action Plan.

Funding sufficient.

Not sufficient funds to manage TWG workload.






Mine Action







Work Plan Implementation


The need to establish a coordination mechanism for a land sector PBA required a re-examination of TWG-L roles and responsibilities.


All activities on schedule.

Work plan prepared including priorities in following areas: Paris Declaration survey, TC guide- lines, ODA Data-base, H-A-R AP review, Accra HLF, and AER.

On schedule with a concept note for NSDP-MTR, PIP 2009-2011 prepared and joint-learning on M&E conducted.

Law on Concession promulgated.


Law on Insolvency promulgated.

No work plan.

Progress on remaining actions to complete Platform 1.

Consolidated action plan for stage 2 prepared.

TWG RWSSH & its secretariat set up & work plan prepared.

Works underway to prepare RWSS sector strategy.

Progress on JMI

Action Plan for Establishment of Road Maintenance Management System drafted.


Progress reported on Periodical Road Maintenance and Overload Control Program.

Policy on registration & use rights of communal land & sub-decree on registration of land of indigenous people drafted & piloting work underway.

Progress made on SLCs.

Progress being made on drafting and approval of remaining fundamental laws.

Guidelines for legislative drafting process being reviewed.

Training & selection of judicial professionals on-going.

Target of decrease of 5-10% of contaminated land and casualties met.

Efforts made to ensure ODA Database capture information on aid.

MPSP approved and circulated and needs to be implemented with DP support.

MOP and CRDB to agree to align NSDP APR with alignment section of AER.

SAD finalized & list of prohibited & restricted goods adopted. Inspection rate gradually reduced.

MIME reviewing recommendations impacting SMEs.

Lack of capacity & knowledge still a challenge esp. on Risk Management System.

Progress being made to finalize policies on management and development of human resources and capacity development.

Work proceeding on developing a medium term remuneration policy.

Platform 1/Stage 1 completed by Dec. 2007.

Platform 2/Stage 2 Consolidated Action Plan prepared.

Progress being made to reach JMI target of improved water supply & sanitation for rural population.

Challenges re- main including lack of sufficient funds, low-level community participation, lack of RWSS strategy, lack of focus on sanitation & hygiene.

GDCC to support RWSSH TWG.

H-A-R Action Plan Implementation

LMs & DPs are working on Road Maintenance System. MPWTs continued efforts to improve road maintenance and the up-coming Road Asset Management Project are keys to the success of addressing this issue.

Partnership principles for land sector near completion.

Process of drafting Land Policy Framework for Cambodia underway.

Communication strategy developed by CL&JR to enhance info. flows between implementing agencies & DPs.

Efforts being made to develop outcome indicators for the reform.

Discussions underway to move toward a PBA for mine action.

Lead and coordinate implementation of H-A-R Action Plan.

Progress report prepared as part of routine reporting to GDCC.

MPSP provides framework for working with DPs including issues of PIUs.

Efforts being made to make PIP process part of national budget process.

Not reported.

Works underway to clarify the use, establishment and management of MBPI.

Reform program under strong leadership by Reform Committee.

PFM RP represents coordinated support from DPs to RGC.

Harmonization success through PFM SWAP.

RWSSH Strategy to provide priorities.

Preparations of technical guideline for RWSSH projects underway.

SOP and NOP encouraged to be implemented.

Guidelines on Role & Functioning of TWGs discussed.

Resource Mobilization

Resources still a challenge.

No sufficient funds.

Not sufficient fund.

Resources still a challenge.

Sufficient fund.

No commitment for MPSP so far.

Not reported.

Once TWG is operational, funding support is needed.

Sufficient resources.

Not sufficient funds.

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